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from D&RGW Guidebook c. 1936

Royal Gorge Route

Denver to Ogden 782 miles.

Route of The Scenic Limited. All regularly assigned cars air-conditioned -coaches, diners, Pullmans, lounge-observation cars.

DENVER, COLO.-Elev. 5,280. Pop. 322,412 (Greater Denver over 385,000). Denver, the capital of Colorado, has grown from a prospectors settlement in 1858 to the "Little Capital of the United States," second only to Washington, D. C. in the number of government offices. Denver is a distinctive city, with broad tree-lined streets, far famed for its beautiful parks and public buildings. As the commercial, manufacturing and distribution center of a vast agricultural, stock-raising and mining region, the city serves the Rocky Mountain empire from northern Wyoming to southern New Mexico, an area onefourth the size of the entire United States.

With the completion, in 1934, of the Dotsero Cutoff, the famous Moffat Tunnel Route of the Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad was established, giving Denver a long-sought position of importance on a direct trunkline connecting the East with the far West.

Denver started in 1858 when the lure of gold brought a band of Cherokee Indians, together with many white prospectors, to Cherry Creek. Its early history is filled with color, adventure and romance. Gold rush days brought picturesque frontier characters. Fortunes were made and lost.

Because of its equable, health-giving climate and its proximity to vast natural resources, Denver grew rapidly into the modern, cultural city of today. The high altitude atmosphere is dry, clear and exhilarating. The sun shines on an average of 304 days a year. Winters are mild. Government reports show that the average winter temperature over a period of 60 years has been above freezing. Summers are delightful. The high, dry air of Colorado has been found especially beneficial to tuberculosis and kindred diseases and Denver has become a famed health resort. Splendid hospitals and sanitariums afford the finest facilities.

The State Capitol building of native granite and marble, with its gleaming dome plated with pure leaf gold from Colorado mines, stands on a hill overlooking the city, exactly one mile above sea level. Below is Denver's famed Civic Center, adjacent to the main business district. Here are the Public Library, the Greek Theatre, Voorhies Memorial and distinctive statues. Across from Civic Center is the semi-circular City and County Building of white granite, completed in 1932 at a cost of $5,000,000. The United States Mint, one of three, now houses the second largest store of gold in the world, exceeded only by the Federal Gold Repository at Fort Knox, Ky. Other noteworthy buildings include a Municipal Auditorium with seating capacity of 12,000; an imposing Post Office of Colorado marble; the United States Customs buildings and many modern business and office buildings.

Denver is known as a cultural center boasting many art galleries, unusual museums and three civic symphony orchestras. Eighty public schools, six colleges and many private schools offer a wealth of educational opportunities. Thousands of visitors may be accommodated by Denver's 300 hotels. So popular is the mile-high city that it has been called the "Convention City" of America.

Denver University is the largest institution of higher education within the city, which also boasts two Catholic colleges of high rank, Regis for men, Loretto Heights for women. Colorado Woman's College draws students from many states. Four of Colorado's state schools are within a radius of 60 miles-University of Colorado at Boulder, School of Mines at Golden, State College of Education at Greeley, State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts at Fort Collins.

Lowry Field, adjacent to Denver to the East, and its subpost Fort Logan, ten miles southwest of Denver, are the location for a branch of the United States Army Air Corps Technical School. Instruction is given in aerial photography, armament, and air corps technical work.

Lowry Field was established on land and buildings donated to the government thru the City of Denver by former United States Senator from Colorado, Lawrence C. Phipps. The property was formerly the site of the Agnes Phipps Sanitarium. Expansion has been rapid since the field was founded in 1938 and by 1941 its valuation had reached between 15 and 20 million dollars. Nearly every type of army airplane is represented at Lowry Field.

Denver is renowned for its beautiful parks and variety of recreational facilities. The carefully planned system of parks and boulevards includes 35 improved parks and 25 directed playgrounds. City Park, containing 400 acres, is the largest. Here is the picturesque lake with its magnificent electric fountain which sends brilliantly illuminated sprays toward the sky in ever-changing forms-a sight long to be remembered. The Colorado Museum of Natural History and the Zoo with more than 2,000 animals and birds attract thousands of visitors to City Park. With splendid golf courses, tennis courts, bridle paths, swimming beaches and broad highways to nearby mountain resorts Denver always provides a delightful variety of "things to do."

A chain of twenty-five mountain parks, comprising 20,897 acres, and threaded by over 160 miles of improved highways, is owned and operated by the city of Denver, offering a great playground with shelter houses, camp sites and open-air fireplaces. In acquiring, improving and opening to public use this vast park system, Denver found no precedents to follow. The idea was unique, never before considered by any municipality and no other American city has since undertaken a similar project. At the very top of Lookout Mountain is the grave of Col. Win. F. Cody, better known as "Buffalo Bill." Close by is a museum of the relies of his career, giving a vivid picture of the "wild and woolly West" of early days.

Fifteen miles from Civic Center is Denver's Park of the Red Rocks with its hundreds of acres of fantastic formations. Here is a large natural amphitheatre, with perfect natural acoustics and a seating capacity of 9,000, used for summer concerts, entertainments, and conventions.

Colorado is the sportsman's paradise. A few miles from Denver are rushing streams alive with trout, beckoning mountain trails and abundant game for hunters. With the development of ski courses, bobsled runs, and toboggan slides Colorado is fast becoming known as a great winter sports center, with nearby Berthoud Pass and Winter Park especially popular with Denverites.

Although Denver is a city of beautiful homes and a natural summer and winter playground for tourists, it is also an important manufacturing center. Meat packing is the largest industry. Sugar production, mining and railroad machinery and flour products are other important manufacturing interests. Denver is the leading livestock center of the West and the world's largest sheep feeder market. Farmers, stockmen, miners and merchants, distributors and manufacturers of the entire Rocky Mountain region look to Denver as the principal market for sale of their products and for purchase of their materials and supplies.

LITTLETON, COLO.-D.-R. 10.3 mi.; pop. 2,244; elev. 5,372. County seat of Arapahoe County, named from a tribe of Indians which originally inhabited this region. A modern, progressive town, attractively located in a rich agricultural section, the chief industries of which are farming, livestock and poultry raising. The oldest operating flour mill in the state is here. Littleton is popular as the suburban home of Denver business men and many beautiful country estates are in the vicinity.

LOUVIERS, COLO.-D.-R. 20.7 mi.; pop. (precinct) 307; elev. 5,675. Douglas County. Shipping point for the DuPont Powder Co., manufacturers of high explosives. Above Louviers Plum Creek swings eastward, bordered by bluffs and mesas of white sandstone, a formation of particular interest to geologists.

CASTLE ROCK, COLO.-D.-R. 32.5 mi.; pop. 580; elev. 6,218. County seat of Douglas County, named for Stephen A. Douglas. In 1820 the explorer, Maj. Long mentioned Castle Rock because of its resemblance to an
old castle ruin. The mesa, 300 feet high, topped with a cap rock 60 feet thick, served as a lookout and signal station for Arapahoe Indians in early days. Formerly noted for its stone quarries, Castle Rock is now the trading point in a stockraising section.

PALMER LAKE, COLO.-D.-R. 52.2; pop. 269; elev. 7,237. El Paso County. This scenic lake and village nestles in the gap between the headwaters of East Plum Creek on the north and those of Monument Creek on the south, the highest point on the Rio Grande between Denver and Pueblo. A well-known pleasure resort, Palmer Lake is composed largely of cottages for summer guests seeking health and recreation. Dairying is the principal industry of the region.

The lake and town were named after Gen. William J. Palmer, organizer, inspiring genius and first president of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. Gen. Palmer was a Philadelphian by birth who had received his early railroad training on the Pennsylvania Railroad. After serving with distinction in the Civil War, he became managing director of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, in charge of the last division from Kit Carson to Denver. Like the true empire builder he was, he saw wonderful possibilities in a transportation system THRU the Rockies. It was a gigantic and daring proposition but he was able to procure the necessary capital to finance the undertaking and the Denver & Rio Grande was incorporated Oct. 27, 1870.

A contemporary writer said of him: "The task to which so few men were equal found in William J. Palmer one who mastered it with an ease that astonished his most ardent friends. His mind was everywhere and he himself almost omnipresent. Along the located lines, where the graders were at work; among the pineries of the Divide, where ties were being cut; among the rolling mills of Pennsylvania, where the steel rails were being

made; in the banking houses of St. Louis, New York and Philadelphia, where money was being drawn and even across the Atlantic among the capitalists, the presence and influence of Palmer was felt and acknowledged. Wm. J. Palmer stands without a rival in any of the great requirements necessary for the building and completion of a Continental railway."

COLORADO SPRINGS, COLO.-D.-R. 74.9 mi.; pop. 50,316 including residential suburbs (reaching 75,000 in tourist season); elev. 5,989. County seat El Paso County. This noted recreation and health resort is a beautiful city with wide, tree-bordered streets, handsome residences, magnificent hotels, and nationally known sanitariums. Located at the foot of mighty Pikes Peak, it lies at the junction of Fountain and Monument Creeks.

In 1871 when the Rio Grande railroad was built into the valley, Gen. Palmer, envisioning a model city in the Rockies, planned and started Colorado Springs. It has far outgrown the most optimistic dreams of its founder and has become one of the great recreation and tourist centers of the country. As a cultural and educational city, Colorado Springs ranks high, with fine public schools, privately endowed Colorado College and a distinguished Fine Arts center. Recreational and sports activities include hiking, swimming, golfing, riding, polo, tennis, skiing and skating, with splendid trout fishing and big game hunting in the nearby mountains.

Among the major industries of the Colorado Springs region are film production, metal ore reduction plants, coal mining, livestock and poultry raising. Lignite coal production approximates 300,000 tons annually. High grade beef and dairy cattle are raised extensively. Dairy products are the source of substantial income. Corn and beans are major farm crops.

Visitors in Colorado Springs find a wealth of interesting things to do and places to go. Numerous sightseeing companies provide facilitiesbuses for large parties and fleets of comfortable open-top sedans for small groupsfor a score of reasonably priced Scenic Drives. One hour, or a full day, or several days, may be happily spent in getting close to the natural wonders of the Pikes Peak region. The Garden of the Gods with its cathedral-like spires and fantastic formations of red and white and mottled sandstone is a marvelous natural phenomenon. The Cave of the Winds, Serpentine Drive, Seven Falls, Mesa Drive, Williams Canyon, Bridal Veil Falls, Buckhorn Pass and Park, Bear Creek Canyon, Helen Hunt
Falls, Silver Cascade Falls, Temple Drive and Rampart Range are some of the spectacular drives which thread the Rockies in this scenic region. Ute Pass is a famous scenic attraction along U. S. 24, the noted Pikes Peak Ocean-to-Ocean Highway.

The Will Rogers "Shrine of the Sun," a memorial of simple and dignified beauty upon Cheyenne Mountain, is attracting thousands of visitors. Pike National Forest, comprising 1,500,000 acres of virgin forest, mountain and stream country, with many sparkling blue lakes at high altitudes, lies immediately west and northwest.

Pikes Peak stands at an altitude of 14,110 feet, more than 1% miles above Colorado Springs. This most famous of America's mountains was named for its discoverer, Lt. Zebulon Pike, who first saw it in 1806 and called it the "Great White Mountain." Fired with ambition, he attempted to scale it, but failed. It was not until 1820 that Dr. Edwin James of Major Long's expedition succeeded in reaching its lofty pinnacle. The summit of Pikes Peak is now reached by a wide, surfaced, toll-free automobile road which ascends to the very crest, or by the unique Cog Railroad. Sunrise on Pikes Peak is an unforgettable experience.

Manitou Springs, Colo.-Pop. 1,462 (several times this number in summer); elev. 6,318. Six miles west of Colorado Springs, at the very foot of Pikes Peak, is Manitou, far famed for its curative springs. The Indians believed the bubbling springs were caused by the breath of the Great Spirit and named the place Manitou, the Indian name for Great Spirit. Sixteen health-giving springs differ widely in their mineral composition. Some of the waters are strongly impregnated with soda, others with iron and magnesia, still others with lithia, lime, sulphur, potash and other minerals. These beneficial waters are bottled and shipped to all parts of the world. Manitou is a popular recreation and health resort.

The historic old town of Colorado City, the booming camp of the "Pikes Peak or Bust" gold rush of 1859, lies midway between Colorado Springs and Manitou. It is now incorporated in Colorado Springs.

Cripple Creek, Colo,Pop. 2,358; elev. 9,375. County seat Teller County. This famous gold camp, built on hillsides, surrounded by great dump heaps of the old mines, is replete with historic spots and romantic tales of thrilling gold rush days of the 'nineties, unparalleled in history. An active mining center, Cripple Creek is one of the nation's leading gold producers. The all-time production record of Teller county gold mines is $385,460,527. Stockraising and the production of potatoes and lettuce are now noteworthy industries. The historic Ute Pass Highway from Colorado Springs, formerly scene of many an Indian fight, is breathtaking in its scenic grandeur.

Increased production for the Cripple Creek-Victor mineralized area was assured by the completion in 1941 of the Carlton Tunnel, a sixmile bore eleven feet high and ten feet wide with a portal elevation of 6,893 feet. Driven by the Golden Cycle Corporation at a cost exceeding one million dollars, the tunnel will give from 250 to 1,100 feet of virgin ground that can be mined before pumping of water is required.

Victor, Colo.-Pop. 1,784; elev. 9,900. Teller County. Three miles from Cripple Creek is Victor, companion mining camp which shared in the wealth and romance of the gold strikes. The region is one of magnificent scenery and wild beauty. Phantom Canyon is five miles away; the Petrified Forest 15 miles distant. Over 100 miles of fishing streams beckon ardent anglers. Elk, deer, bear and mountain lions entice hunters. Bordering is Pike National Forest.

PUEBLO, COLO-D.-R. 119.4 mi.; pop. 52,162; elev. 4,668. County seat Pueblo County. Colorado's second ranking city, Pueblo, most important manufacturing center in the state, is often called the "Pittsburgh of the West," having the largest steel plant west of Chicago. Following the completion of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad to Pueblo in 1872, Gen. Wm. J. Palmer, founder and president of the road, organized the Colorado Coal and Iron Co. The first steel rails rolled were used in the branch line of the Rio Grande at Silverton. The company, now known as the Colorado Fuel and Iron Corporation, is nationally recognized as a foremost producer of steel rails, structural steel, fencing, nails and similar products in large volume. Foundries, machine shops and flourishing brick plants are located here. Large jobbing and wholesale houses, canning factories, tent, awning, bedding and broom factories, a flour mill, furniture factory, packing plants and chemical plants are among the industries which place Pueblo first in the state as a manufacturing center.

The Pueblo Junior College is the senior institution in an excellent public school system.

Pueblo is also the center of an important agricultural territory, 50,000 acres of irrigated land lying adjacent to the city within Pueblo county. Leading products are alfalfa, sugar beets, corn, melons, vegetables, fruits and small grains. From the high altitude sections come delicious lettuce, peas and cauliflower.

San Isabel National Forest, containing 651,200 acres of indescribably beautiful country, lies to the west. The Sangre de Cristo range, with its rugged array of peaks, rises in sheer beauty above a wide plain. Crystal clear lakes at high altitudes, rushing trout streams, magnificent stretches of heavily timbered slopes, natural parks and meadows, combine to make this forest reserve one of the most popular tourist regions in the Rockies. The St. Charles recreational area, recently established in the heart of the forest 45 miles from Pueblo, provides ample facilities for San Isabel visitors.

First authentic record of a white man at the present site of Pueblo relates that Lieut. Pike made temporary camp there in 1806, while exploring interior of the Ter_ ritory of Louisiana. Pueblo's first house, built in 1824, was described as "a stone house and horse pen on the bank of the river where it would not be in the power of any enemy to approach from the river side." The territory around Pueblo was, paradoxically, a neutral zone between the various Indian tribes and a battle ground for all.

In 1859, on the north side of the present city of Pueblo, the town of Fountain City was organized, but soon became secondary in importance, and later a part of Pueblo, incorporated in 1870. With the coming of the Denver & Rio Grande railroad in 1872, Pueblo began a rapid and consistent development which it has continued to the present.

Pueblo's official records and the files of one of Colorado's oldest newspapers, established in 1868, furnish an authentic account of the dramatic and colorful history of the pioneer West.

PORTLAND, COLO.-D.-R. 145.8 mi.; pop. 337; elev. 5,051. Fremont County. Noted because of its thousands of acres of limestone which are used in the manufacture of cement. Main plant of the Colorado Portland Cement Co., controlling the oldest cement plant (built in 1899) west of the Mississippi River. To the south is San Isabel National Forest.

FLORENCE, COLO.-D.-R. 151.9 mi.; pop. 2,632; elev. 5,199. Fremont County. This community, rich in natural resources, was one of the earliest sections of Colorado to be developed. The first settlement was in 1840. Here was grown the first alfalfa with seed hauled from Califorma at $40 a pound. Coal mining, now the leading industry, with nearly 500,000 tons shipped yearly from Fremont county mines, had its beginning in 1860.

The Florence oil field, which has been producing since 1862, is second oldest in the United States. Of the 1,100 wells drilled 60% have been producers. The largest made 460 barrels per day. A total of 13,360,000 barrels of oil have been produced. The daily average at present is 175 barrels. Other minerals include aluminum, bismuth, feldspar, mica, copper, gold, iron, lead, lithium, silver, columbite and zinc.

Florence is on the Arkansas river. Fertile irrigated lands produce celery, lettuce and other vegetables and also fruits in abundance.

San Isabel National Forest lies to the south, the Royal Gorge to the west and Pike National Forest to the north. with its famous peak only 30 miles away.

CANON CITY, COLO.-D.-R. 160 mi.; pop. 6,690 (seasonal, 8,000); elev. 5,344. County seat Fremont County. named after the "Pathfinder," Gen. John C. Fremont.
Aptly christened, Canon City stands at the entrance to the Royal Gorge. This region was the scene of several early explorations; first by Lt. Pike in 1806, then by Dr. James and Capt. Bell of the Long party in 1820. Fremont, returning from his second expedition in 1842, emerged from the mountains at the present site of Canon City. During the gold rush of 1859 the first settlement was made at Canon City. Because of Indian raids the town was abandoned in 1862, only one family remaining. Two years later new settlers came in. The Territorial Penitentiary, established in 1868, was predecessor of the Colorado State Penitentiary, now housing more than 1,500 convicts.

Coal mining is an important industry, with almost 500,000 tons produced annually in Fremont County coal mines. Non-metallic minerals, yielding substantial revenues, are feldspar, extensively used in glazing chinaware and pottery; dolomite and ganister, used as a flux for steel. Canon City is famed for the variety of its terrazzo, a kind of cement flooring including fragments of colored stone, commonly not set in patterns.

Numerous reservoirs supply water for irrigation, with truck gardening ranking first among agricultural activities. Cattle raising is next in importance. Fruits include apples, cherries, strawberries, and raspberries. Poultry raising is extensive.

San Isabel National Forest lies to the south. There are over 50 miles of trout fishing streams immediately adjacent. Deer are plentiful in the region.

HANGING BRIDGE.-D.-R. 166.2; elev. 5,494. Fremont County.


The Royal Gorge, dominant factor in establishing the Denver & Rio Grande Western railroad as Scenic Line of the World, fully merits its position as America's best loved travel wonder. The Scenic Limited, westbound or eastbound, makes a 10-minute stop every day at Hanging Bridge, so that passengers may alight to glimpse the marvels of this intriguing western wonder spot.

The Hanging Bridge, an outstanding railroad engineering achievement, is suspended between sheer canyon walls, just 30 feet apart at this point. For more than 50 years this bridge has attested the skill and daring of engineers who conceived the remarkable structure when the roaring waters of the Arkansas river threatened to make the narrow canyon forever impassable.

The World's Highest Bridge, across the Royal Gorge 1053 feet above the railroad tracks, is 1250 feet in length and has an automobile thoroughfare 18 feet wide. Completed in 1929, the bridge cost $250,000.

The Royal Gorge Incline, recognized as the world's steepest railway, runs on an angle of 45 degrees 1550 feet between the Hanging Bridge and the World's Highest Bridge. This funicular was built by a leading elevator manufacturer, and operates two cars with a capacity of 21 passengers each. The ride up or down the narrow defile between towering canyon walls is a scenic delight.

Scientific evidence is conclusive that the Royal Gorge was cut by the Arkansas river, its water loaded with sand ceaselessly grinding away the rock. That the gorge is the result of a great fissure opened up by an earthquake is an entirely erroneous idea sometimes expressed by those who do not fully understand the cutting power of sand-laden water.

Viewed either from its depth, or from the canyon rim, the Royal Gorge presents an inspiring sight. Nowhere else does man come closer to realization of the Infinite.

SALIDA, COLO.-D.-R. 215.1; pop. 4,969; elev. 7,050 ft. County seat of Chaffee County, named for Jerome B. Chaffee, who secured the cession of right-of-way for the Denver & Rio Grande. He was largely responsible for Colorado's admittance to statehood in 1876, and was its first United States Senator.

Located almost in the exact geographic center of Colorado, surrounded by rugged peaks, many towering over 14,000 feet, Salida is one of the most picturesque towns in the west. Salida (from the Spanish word for outlet), stands at the outlet of the upper Arkansas Valley. Naturally situated as the hub of six mountain passes and the converging point of the Royal Gorge Route with the Marshall Pass-Gunnison and Poncha Pass-Alamosa narrow gage lines, Salida is in the heart of a large trade territory. Farming, stockraising, mining, railroading, granite and travertine quarrying are important industries. Only travertine deposits of any size in the world, outside of Italy, are those just six miles east of Salida.

Cochetopa, Pike and San Isabel National Forests are adjacent. Most famous nearby peaks are Hunts (12,466 ft.) in the Sangre de Cristo range, Mt. Ouray (13,955 ft.) and Mt. Shavano (14,179 ft.) both in the rugged Sawatch range. The Angel of Shavano is an amazingly realistic eternal snowy white symbol etched on the massive slope of Mt. Shavano. Crystal clear high altitude lakes are within easy driving distance. Fishing and hunting conditions are excellent and numerous hot springs make swimming a favorite sport.

The Arkansas river was the dividing line between French and Spanish territory before the Louisiana Purchase. The site of Salida, part lying on each side of the river, has been under the flags of four nationsFrance, Spain, Texas and the United States of America.

BUENA VISTA, COLO.-D.-R. 240.3 mi.; pop. 779; elev. 7,968. Chaffee County. Fully exemplifying its name, (beautiful view), it lies close to the famous Collegiate Peaks, strangely not a part of the Continental Divide. Rising in regal splendor are Mt. Princeton, 14,177 ft.; Yale, 14,172 ft.; Harvard, 14,399 ft. Farming, stockraising and growing of crisp high-altitude vegetables are im

portant industries. Fishing and hunting dominate sports, with nearby hot springs aiding development of attractive resorts. In Chalk Creek Gulch, 22 miles above Buena Vista, nestles picturesque St. Elmo, a popular vacation spot with well equipped tourist accommodations.

MALTA, COLO.-D.-R. 271 mi.; elev. 9,580. Lake County. Gateway to Leadville, four miles east. Discovery of gold in 1859 by California-bound treasure seekers gave its name to California Gulch, entering the Arkansas Valley at Malta. Oro (Gold) City by the end of 1860 had 10,000 population and $5,000,000 was washed from its golden sands in the few brief years of its existence.

LEADVILLE, COLO.-D.-R. 275.8 mi.; pop. 4,774; elev. 10,200. County seat Lake County. Standing nearly two miles above sea level, Leadville is highest incorporated city in the United States. Following collapse of Oro in 1865, prospectors sank myriad shafts on surrounding mountain slopes, and by 1877 had discovered rich silverlead ore in great quantities, precipitating the "rush" of 1878, and giving a characteristic name to Leadville, soon known as the world's greatest silver camp. The Denver & Rio Grande reached Leadville in 1880, the camp rapidly attaining a population of 30,000. Production of the first 10 years passed $120,000,000. With silver demonetization in 1893 the camp slumped, but attention was turned to gold, copper, lead and zinc with profitable results. Total mineral production from 1859 to 1941 is recorded at $453,061,665, giving Leadville first place among Colorado's mining districts. Huge quantities of ore, providing a steady, reliable output, maintain Leadville's position as one of the nation's foremost mining centers.

At Climax, just 13 miles from Leadville, is the largest molybdenum mine in the world, producing 70 per cent of the molybdenum mined in the United States. With a daily production of 15,000 tons of ore, the Climax mine ships four cars of molybdenum concentrates a day to eastern steel plants. A considerable quantity of Climax molybdenum concentrates is exported.

The Leadville smelter is one of Colorado's largest and most versatile ore-reduction plants, receiving large quantities of ore from many districts.

Leadville stands in the midst of the highest peaks of the state, almost at the top of the eastern slope of the Continental Divide. Mt. Elbert, 14,431 ft., and Mt. Massive, 14,418 ft., highest peaks in Colorado, second and third highest in the United States, give Leadville an inspiring skyline. Within 18 miles are Twin Lakes, 9,190 feet above sea level. Trout fishing and big game hunting top sports activities, with skiing and skating favorite winter recreation.

A glamorous and stirring history is behind Leadville. Fortunes dug from surrounding mountain sides laid the sturdy foundation upon which Colorado's prosperity has been built.

TENNESSEE PASS, COLO.-D.-R. 281 mi.; elev. 10,240 ft. Divides Lake and Eagle counties. Rio Grande trains on the Royal Gorge Route cross the Continental Divide here-highest standard gauge railroad in the U. S. Water from eternal mountain snows divides at this point, part flowing east into the Arkansas river on its way to the Atlantic Ocean; part into the Eagle, thence into the Colorado river, and Boulder Dam's Lake Mead to the Pacific.

PANDO, COLO.-D.-R. 288.7 mi.; pop. 100; elev. 9,209. Eagle County. Located at the terminal moraine of an old glacier, Pando is the present-day site of a huge natural ice plant, where the Denver & Rio Grande Western annually harvests about 40,000 tons of ice.

RED CLIFF, COLO.-D.-R. 293.9 mi.; pop 715; elev. 8,608. Eagle County. Established as a trading post by John Jacob Astor in 1820, Red Cliff attains present-day prominence through daily shipment of 1,200 tons of zinc ores and concentrates from the Belden mine of the New Jersey Zinc Co., just two miles away. The Belden mine, with seven miles of tunnels and drifts, is one of the largest zinc mines in the world, unique in that its elaborate concentration plant is underground.

Colorful Eagle River Canyon in this region has a double track railroad, one track on each side of the rushing mountain stream.

The vicinity is well timbered and affords excellent summer sheep range. Eagle river, and the 100 wellstocked nearby lakes, attract fishermen. Both deer and bear are plentiful.

Red Cliff is the focal point for the annual trek to the Mount of the Holy Cross, fast becoming enshrined in the hearts of American pilgrims.

MINTURN, COLO.-D.-R. 302 mi.; pop. 596; elev. 7,825. Eagle County. Surrounded by Holy Cross National Forest, Minturn is rail gateway to Holy Cross National Monument. Mount of the Holy Cross, 13,996 ft., is so named because snow on the east slope clings thruout the summer in great vertical and horizontal clefts which cross each other, forming a huge and well proportioned white cross.

AVON, COLO. - D.-R. 308 mi.; pop. 200; elev. 7,465. Eagle County. Here is located an experimental farm operated by the Colorado State College of Agriculture, responsible for marked advance in high-altitude farming methods. Splendid views of the Holy Cross range attract train passengers.

EAGLE, COLO.-D.-R. 329 mi.; pop. 518; elev. 6,598. County seat Eagle County. Hay, grain, and potatoes are chief crops. There is excellent pasturage for livestock on surrounding uplands. Rivers and lakes provide sportive fishing. Deer are numerous. Local hunters wage relentless war on mountain lions. Gypsum, just seven miles distant, is another thriving Eagle County community.

DOTSERO, COLO.-D.-R. 341.9 mi.; D.-M. 166.8 mi.; pop. 110; elev. 6,155. Eagle County. At the confluence of Eagle and Colorado rivers, Dotsero is located at the junction of the Royal Gorge and Moffat Tunnel Routes of the Rio Grande. It is the western terminus of the Dotsero Cutoff, a 38-mile railroad joining tracks of the Rio Grande at Dotsero and the Denver & Salt Lake Railway, the well known Moffat Road, at Orestod (Dotsero spelled backwards). Completion of the Dotsero Cutoff in 1934 brought into existence the Moffat Tunnel Route of the Rio Grande, shortening by 175 miles the Rio Grande distance between Denver and western Colorado, Salt Lake City, Ogden and the Pacific Coast.

continued on: Royal Gorge and Moffat Tunnel Routes

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